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Old Maps
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There are a number of illustrations and photographs of St. Julien from the 19th century on, but almost none dating from earlier times. The few examples that exist are very small illustrations found in vol d'oiseau (birds-eye view) maps of Paris from the 16th-18th centuries, in which the buildings, bridges, and other features are drawn to appear three-dimensional. Most of these maps are oriented so that west is at the bottom and the western façades of the buildings face the viewer. The maps differ in style and the amount of detail shown. Generally speaking, the better-known Paris landmarks such as the Cathedral of Notre-Dame are rendered in detail and are easily recognizable, while smaller, less-important monuments are shown in a more simplified manner, and ordinary structures are represented in a generic way. For that reason, the illustrations of St. Julien in these maps cannot be considered as accurate representations of what the church originally looked like, but they are interesting nonetheless.

The majority of the maps depict St. Julien with a spire, and some historians see this as proof that the church used to have one. On the other hand, it is possible that the mapmakers might have added a spire to identify St. Julien as a church, even if the spire did not actually exist. And since some maps are copies or adaptations of earlier ones, the copies may simply repeat the architectural details of the original they were based upon. You may also note that in some of the plans a structure appears to be attached to the right (south) side of the church. I believe this may represent the Chapel of St. Blaise and St. Louis, a separate structure which actually stood further to the south.




Grand Gouache, 1540
Detail from the Grande Gouache, depicting the City of Paris, ca. 1540. This plan is a copy, executed in gouache, of an earlier map created between 1524-29, which no longer exists. The original Grand Gouache itself was destroyed by a fire in 1871, but fortunately, photographic prints of the entire plan and some partial copies still survive. St. Julien and the Chapel of St. Blaise are labeled with little banners and are depicted as separate buildings. The church has a small spire over the east end, while the chapel appears to have a round tower. The chapel seems to be almost as large as the church and stands at an angle to it, although in reality, the chapel was much smaller than St. Julien and stood parallel to the church. The west end of St. Julien has an arched portal, and above it, three windows of approximately the same size, with the middle window positioned higher than the other two. Some small houses stand between the church and the street (some of which are partly obscured by a banner).




Plan de Truschet 
	and Hoyau/Plan de Bâle, ca. 1552
Detail of the Plan de Olivier Truschet & Germain Hoyau, known as the Plan de Bâle, woodcut, ca. 1552. St. Julien is near the lower right of the image and is labeled "S. Ivlien". In this map, the church stands on the left (north) side of the block which belonged to the medieval Priory of St. Julien. (In reality, it stood further to the south). The buildings that once stood in front of the church and separated it from the street are not shown here. Instead, the church appears to front directly onto the rue St. Julien le Pauvre. Note the spire over the east end, the pointed arch of the portal, and the tiny round window above it.




Plan de St. Victor, 1555
Detail of the Plan de St. Victor, attributed to Jacques Androuet du Cerceau, copper plate engraving, 1555. This plan was named for the Abbey of St. Victor in Paris, where the only known copy was preserved up to the time of the French Revolution. As in the Plan de Bâle above, St. Julien has a Gothic portal with a single round window above, but here it has no spire. The church sits well behind the row of buildings along the rue St. Julien le Pauvre. A smaller structure to the south might represent the Chapel of St. Blaise, although it extends a bit farther west than the chapel actually did. A row of buildings completely separates the church from the street.




Plan de George
  Braun, 1572
Detail of the Plan de Georges Braun, copper plate engraving, 1572. This map was engraved in 1570 and published in Cologne in 1572, in a work edited by Georges Braun, called Civitates orbis terranum. It represents Paris as it looked in the 1520's. St. Julien is on the right side of the image, about halfway down. In this map, the church stands near the right (south) side of the block, and the buildings which stood in front of it are shown. Again, the arch of the portal and a small round window above it can be seen, but no spire is visible.




Plan de 
Belleforest, 1575
Detail of the Plan de François Belleforest, colored wood engraving, 1575. The enclosure occupied by the priory is located a little less than halfway up the right side of the image. None of the buildings in the area where St. Julien stands are marked with a cross, let alone a spire, so it is difficult to guess which one is supposed to represent the church, possibly the long, narrow structure in the center with two narrow windows near the peak of its gable end. Of course it is also possible that the mapmaker filled the block with generic buildings, either because he did not know the church existed or did not think it important enough to include.




Plan de 
Louis Gaultier, 1607
Detail of the Plan de Léonard Gaultier, engraving, 1607. This small plan is more like a view of Paris than an actual map, and it was used as a frontispiece in a book. It is also unusual because it shows Paris viewed from the south rather than the west. For the first time, we see St. Julien in a side view with a bit of the west end showing (see the lower right corner of the picture above). The church's most prominant feature is the large spire, which is located in the middle of the roof, instead of on the east end. It has a "coq gaulois" (Gallic rooster) on top instead of a cross.




Plan de François Quesnel, 1609
Detail of the Plan de François Quesnel, engraving, 1609. Quesnel was the master painter of King Henri IV. In his plan, St. Julien is shown with a spire on the east end, but instead of being centered over the peak, the spire sits lower down and on the southern slope of the roof. There are some strong indications that the monks of St. Julien originally planned to build a bell tower above the chapel of the south aisle, and a small stair tower to provide access to it was actually built on the south side of the church, so it is interesting to see a spire located in this position. The west front of the church is similar to what we saw on the Grand Gouache, with a small doorway surmounted by three windows. The center window is larger and sits higher than the other two. The smaller building south of the church with the cross on the east end likely represents the Chapel of St. Blaise and St. Louis.




Plan de Vassalieu, 1609
Detail from the Plan de Vassalieu, called the Nicolay Plan, engraving, 1609. The mapmaker Vassalieu was a topographer and engineer of the French Artillery. St. Julien is depicted so that it almost fills the entire block, and the tip of a spire appears over the right (south) side of the roof. It is difficult to say whether the structures flanking the church are meant to represent its side aisles, or separate buildings.




Plan de 
Mathieu Merian, 1615
Detail of the Plan de Mathieu Merian, copper plate engraving, 1615. A tall spire is shown over the east end, and on the west front, obscured by cross-hatched shading, there looks to be a large Gothic window with stone tracery. The structure attached to the right side of the church, which has a large Gothic window of its own, likely represents the Chapel of St. Blaise and St. Louis, which was actually a much smaller, separate building that stood further to the south. A wall with an arched opening separates church and chapel from the street.




Plan de Charles Visscher, 1618
Detail of the Plan de Charles Visscher, engraving, 1618. This plan is considered to be a copy of the Merian Plan shown above. Certainly there are many similarities in the depiction of St. Julien, including the spire over the east end, the big Gothic window, the arched doorway in the wall, and the chapel attached to the right side.



Plan de 
Melchior Tavernier, 1630
Detail of the Plan de Melchior Tavernier, engraving, 1630. Tavernier's plan is an updated copy of Merian's. Overall, the depiction of St. Julien has not changed significantly. The same structure is shown attached to the right side of the church, as well as the spire over the east end.




Plan de Jean Boisseau, 1649-1652
Detail of the Plan de Jean Boisseau, engraving, 1649-1652. Boisseau's plan shows St. Julien positioned as if the apse was located on the rue du Fouarre. As in the Plan de Quesnel, the spire is located on the south side of the roof. The Chapel of St. Blaise might be represented by one of the small structures just to the right of the church. A row of buildings stands along the rue St. Julien le Pauvre, separating the church from the street.




Plan de Jacques Gomboust, 1652
Detail of the Plan de Jacques Gomboust, engraving, 1652. This map is the first to depart from the all-pictorial style of earlier Paris maps. Jacques Gomboust was the Engineer of King Louis XIII, and his plan of Paris was made, by royal command, according to the rules of geometry, excepting the monuments. Thus, the important monuments are still shown in elevation, while all the rest is flat, like a modern street map. St. Julien, the Chapel of St. Blaise, and the College of Normandie (one of the old colleges of the University of Paris), are the only structures shown on their block. The images are about as difficult to read as the lettering, but the church clearly has a spire over the middle of the nave, and there is a courtyard represented by a blank area in front of the church and along one side. The Chapel of St. Blaise is incorrectly placed to the east of St. Julien--it was actually located south of the church. A narrow alley is shown leading from the rue Galande to the chapel's west end. The chapel actually had an entrance there, set at right angles to the nave, and a narrow passageway connected it to the rue Galande.




Plan de Bullet et Blondel, 1670?-1676
Detail of the Plan de Bullet et Blondel, engraving, 1670?-1676. This plan was drawn up by order of Louis XIV, by Sr. Bullet, Architect of the King, and M. Blondel, Director of the Royal Academy of Architecture, who probably used the Plan de Gomboust as their model. This plan certainly depicts St. Julien in a very similar way, right down to the spire and the inaccurate position of the Chapel of St. Blaise. The Colleges of Normandie and Picardie are also given prominence and clearly labeled.




Plan de Jouvin de Rochefort, 1670?
Detail from the Plan de Jouvin de Rochefort, engraving, 1670?. Like the previous Plans de Gomboust and Bullet et Blondel, it shows important monuments in elevation, while the rest is done in a flat geometric style.The orientation is different--north at the top, south at the bottom. St. Julien is clearly considered to be the most important structure on the block, and is depicted with a spire rising from the center of its roof along with the courtyard and narrow alley leading to the rue Galande. The Chapel of St. Blaise, and some of the colleges on the rue du Fouarre can be seen as well, although with much less detail. The overall stippling pattern used to fill the space around them makes them very difficult to discern.




Plan de Jean de Caille, 1714
Detail of the Plan de Jean de la Caille, engraving, 1714. This plan was published as an atlas, consisting of 22 plates representing the 20 "quartiers" of Paris. The engraving was done by several different people, and the plates vary in scale, orientation, and quality of execution. As in the three previous plans, only important monuments are represented in elevation. St. Julien, the Chapel of St. Blaise, and the College or Normandie are the only structures seen on the block. The small, rather crude images have very little detail. You can still see that St. Julien has a spire over the middle of the roof, and that the Chapel of Saint Blaise stands at right angles to the church, rather than parallel. The courtyard to the west of St. Julien and the alley going from it past the Chapel to the rue Galande are clearly shown.




Plan of Louis 
Bretez/Turgot Plan, 1739
Detail of the Plan de Louis Bretez, known as the Turgot Plan, copper plate engraving, 1739. Created by Bretez at the request of Michel Etienne Turgot, this map shows Paris as it was in 1734. It also reflects the changes made to the portal of St. Julien in 1651. The building now has a Neoclassical façade with a triangular pediment and little pilasters, and the spire shown in earlier maps is gone, replaced by a tiny cross on the east end. The portal has a rounded archway, which is inaccurate, and Turgot has chosen to omit the ruined remains of the old Gothic portal which were still attached to the northwest corner of the building. Another interesting detail shown here is the long, narrow structure bordering the Seine along the north side of the rue de la Bucherie. This is the Salle St. Charles, a large annex belonging to the Hôtel Dieu (Paris hospital) which acquired the Priory of St. Julien in 1655. Two bridges connected the annex to the main hospital building located across the Seine on the Île de la Cité. One of them, the Pont au Double, actually had a hospital ward built on top of it. A second annex would eventually be built on the other side of the rue de la Bucherie, near St. Julien.




Plan de Paris á Vol de Oiseau, drawn by Georges Peltier between 1920-1940
Detail of the Plan de Paris á Vol de Oiseau, drawn by Georges Peltier between 1920-1940. This very detailed 20th-century bird's-eye view plan is oriented so that north is at the top and south is at the bottom. The Peltier plan shows St. Julien much as it appears today, viewed from the south side. The tower is slightly taller in the drawing than it is in reality, but otherwise the details of the church seem fairly accurate. The small cross that sits atop the pediment on the west end today is not present, but the window moldings on the south side can be seen. Some of the old buildings that once stood along the rue St. Julien le Pauvre are shown, as well as a large structure located east of the apse on the rue Lagrange. The Salle St. Charles (visible on the rue de la Bucherie in the Turgot Plan) and the annex of the Hôtel Dieu that stood opposite it until 1909 are gone. The name Square R. Viviani is visible, suggesting that this portion of the plan was drawn after 1928, the year when the Square opened to the public.




Red Cross map, 1944 Guidebook map by Guy, date unknown Printemps map, 1998
Just for fun, I conclude with some details from three 20th-century tourist maps of Paris which feature small illustrations of well-known Paris monuments placed on ordinary, flat street maps. These modern maps are very reminiscent of the mixed-technique plans of Gomboust and la Caille. The one on the left is from a map that was handed out by the Red Cross to American troops in 1944 to help them find their way around Paris. In the center is a detail of a map that was included in an undated tourist guide published by Guy, of Paris postcard fame. On the right is a detail from a 1998 map distributed for free by the Printemps department store. The orientation of all three is typical of modern maps. North is at the top, so the east end of St. Julien is visible, rather than the portal. All of the maps are fairly accurate in their depiction of the church. The side aisles and the bell tower on the south side are shown, although the tower is really much shorter than it appears in the maps. The Guy map has a detailed rendering of the eastern apses, but the building's orientation is off by a good 90 degrees. (The nearby church of St. Severin was treated far worse--the building is completely turned around so that the portal is where the apse should be). Although neither rare nor valuable, these tourist maps carry on the historic tradition of the old pictorial plans of Paris.




St. Julien Home Images Home


Two of the map details shown here are excerpts from the click-and-zoom maps found on The Paris Pages website. The others were scanned from a variety of sources, and are used here strictly for educational and research purposes.


St. Julien le Pauvre St. Julien le Pauvre
url: http://www.people.ku.edu/~asnow/
Webmaster: A. Snow
This site last updated 10/12/2011.

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