Miscellaneous Hieroglyphic Documents

a web edition with commentary

inaugural date: 2 January 2005; last update: 24 June 2022

Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (jyounger@ku.edu)

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In the commentary (not in the headings), CHIC documents (numbers preceded by #) in bold (e.g., #225) are sealstones or impressions.

In the "normalizations" (phonetic readings) suggested below, the phonetic identifications of the Hiero signs are based on Notes on the Signs, a separate study of the individual signs, their resemblances to Linear A/B signs and the patterns of their use in Hiero. The phonetic values of signs in black are considered certain; those in red are considered probable; and those in green are considered possible. With green values, sometimes only the consonant is guessed and the syllable is then rendered as in the following Kv.

A raised asterisk after the syllabogram indicates the reading is doubtful (e.g., *), similarly for the underlined transnumeration and normalization (e.g., 042 A).


non-administrative documents

GO Yb O1 (Gournia Excavation Project): inv. 14.1029, potter's batt (two joining fragments from south of the Potter's Workshop, Area 106NE (trench 99, mixed context but mainly MM II-III with unclear LM I-III). The context looks like a dump or fill acumulating over time and including scoops, a kiln stand (?), potter's tools (rib, wheel socle base), a ceramic figurine of a horned beetle (like those from peak santuaries), and an architectonic lentoid sealstone (MM III).

X *[ X 042-003-[

GO Yb 01 in AB values

VIR3 occurs rarely (see Notes to Signs /SignNotes.html): KN #049.d2 (/KNtexts.html); KN #053.aA (/KNtexts.html); KN #060.a (/KNtexts.html); MA/P #109a, 2; and incised on a pot from MA town (MA Yb 04; below). On two KN texts (#053 and #060) the sign ends the same word: 028-049-041-003


non-administrative documents

For administrative documents from Malia, see Malia Hieroglyphic Documents.

#316 MA/M (Malia, Quartier Mu) Yb 01: HMp 18382 [Mu I 35], Chamaizi Vase; from V 5

X X 049-041-006-025

Cf. * 049-041-006-057 (#327). Notes to Sign 041, App. VI, and Notes to Signgroups, App. XVI suggest separating the signs thus: or .

#316 in AB values
signgroupLinear A
RO3-WA-NWA-TEU-NA-RU-KA-NA-TI (PK Za 11c), A-RI-NI-TA (HT 25a.3, ZA 8.2-3), DA-RU-NE-TE (HT 98b.2), I-*79-RI-NI-TA (PH 6.2)

#317 MA/M (Malia, Quartier Mu) Yb 02: MASM M 67/260 [Mu I 37], pithos; from Mu III 8

*** >< 042-057-010-034-028-093-065

CHIC: Sign 010 or 088? Sign 093, 031 or 049? Sign 070 at the end (Mu I) is excluded. JGY: For the possibility that the penultimate sign is 031, cf. ^gt;? 070-028-031 (#307.b).
Since 042 is an initial, the signgroup begins there; the last two signs may be retrograde.
Sign * 010 is doubtful; sign 057 lacks the usual haft in signs incised on clay - haftless, it resembles 057 on sealstones.
Sign * 093 appears only here.
The way the signs were written on the pithos suggests separations: the first four signs are arranged in a straight line, but 028 is positioned above 034 and the final two signs are placed at some distance away, 065 above * 093. The first three signs may be a separate signgroup; see Inflection Sequence 1.

JGY normalizes

* ** >< 042-057-010-034 028 093-065 ><

There is no Linear A parallel for A-KI-RI-TA, but if A were the common prefix, there are parallels for KI-RI-TA, and, with a suffix, SU-KI-RI-TA (PH Wa 32; cf. HT HT Zb 158b).

#317 in AB values
signgroupLinear A


NU?-TI or TI-NU?
KI-RI-TA2 (HT 114a.1; HT 121.1 (heading/placename), KI-RE-TA2 (HT 85b.1-2; HT 129.1); the objective ]KI-RE-TA-NA (KH 2.3, 2nd heading). Cf. SU-KI-RI-TA (PH Wa 32; cf. HT HT Zb 158b)
KU common (e.g., HT 127b.4-5; HT Wa 1471-1622); and as adjunct *188+KU, TELA+KU, GRA+KU
TU-NU (KA Zf 1)

#318 MA/M (Malia, Quartier Mu) Yb 03: MASM M 68/151 [Mu I 38], plate; from Mu IV 4, central compartment

* >< 051-092-092 ><

CHIC: the drawing of 051 is rather crude; one might also consider 037. The inscription was incised after firing. Compare 051-051-051-041 (#089.b2), and X 7000 X 016-038-007 *051 7000 (#090.a-b), both from Mallia Mu.

#318 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
~KI-RO ("owed"); cf. KA-RE-RO (HT Wc 3003)
cf. RU-RA2 (HT 11b.1); cf. A-RU 11 , *312 1 (HT 49a.6)

#319 MA/M (Malia, Quartier Mu) Yb 04: MASM 65 M/H 200 [Mu I 39], pithos cover; from Mu

]* >< ]088-087-070-027 ><

CHIC: 087, certainly not 072 (Mu I). The inscription was incised after firing. Sign 088 occurs only one other time: X 160 -003/VIR3 160 (#049.d2). If an adjunct, it would then function like Linear A *313 which occurs in three versions, all only with VIR. This suggests that VIR might have occurred before the break in the sherd. In three Linear A documents, VIR+*313 occurs at the end of a list (HT 89.3; HT 94a.2; HT 100.3) and just before the total (KU-RO; also see HT 127b.5); *313 occurs thrice more, as part of a couple VIR+*313b and CYP+D, on just one document KH 7a.2-5. It is possible, then that the rest of the inscription here, 087-070-027 A*301-RO-RA3, is some version of KU-RO.

JGY normalizes

+]* >< 003+]088 087-070-027 ><

#319 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
VIR+*313 KU-RO ("balance," "total")
SA-*301-RI (ZA 11b.1); cf. VIR+*313c ... *310 (HT 127b.4-5)

#320 MA/M (Malia, Quartier Mu) Yb 05: MASM 68 M/H 205 [Mu I 400, base of a small vase; from Mu III 3b

>? 041-059-025 >?

The signgroup may be intact or consist of a signgroup plus logogram or a string of logograms; see Notes to sign 041, App. VI.

#320 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
WA-MA-TEA-MI-TA (ZA 10b.4-5)

#321 MA/M (Malia, Quartier Mu) Yb 06: MASM 69 M/H 206 [Mu I 41], sherd; from Mu H/J 3 east part

] >< ]056-070 ><

#321 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
]KU-RO~KU-RO ("balance," "total")

#322 MA/M (Malia, Quartier Mu) Yc 01: HMp 18383[Mu I 36], Chamaizi Vase; from Mu III 4, west bench

X 008-068

CHIC: or 096- ? Inscribed in black paint (before firing?).
Notes to Sign 068, App. XXIX, suggests that 068 is a terminal. For the signgroup, compare < <-070-050-056 009-068 (#119.v), and * 009-068 *011 (#225, normalized).
Phonetically, the signgroup recurs on Chamaizi Vase, #329, and probably on #331.

#322 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
A-RvA-RI (PH 6.1, 3), A-RU (HT 9a.5-6, b.2-3; HT 49a.6)

#323 MA/N (Malia, Quartier Nu) Yb 01: MASM N 2260, pithos cover; from outside the Chrysolakkos.

X [006[

#323 in AB values
signgroup Linear A

#324 MA/N (Malia, Quartier Nu) Yb 02: HMp 11149, Chamaizi Vase from Quartier Nu, charnier 3 (EM III-MM II)

X X 057-023-070-018

Mallia Document Sets, II: Palace 1, related
The same signgroup probably recurs: ] [ ]023 018-070[ (#055.a), and see Notes to Signgroups, App. XX and 06b Transaction Terms, App. XXVIII, both of which suggest separating 018.
If the two signgroups are basically identical, the switch in the last two signs may reflect differences between the two supports, their provenance, and their context dates.

#324 in AB values
signgroup Linear A

#325 MA/P (Malia, Palace) Yb 01: HMp no. ? [ÉM], Chamaizi Vase


#324 in AB values
signgroup Linear A

#326 MA/P (Malia, Palace) Yb 02: HMp 7833 [ÉM], Chamaizi Vase


CHIC: For the sign to the left of the "jug", cf. Chapouthier 1946, p. 89, whose "double horn" is hardly convincing.

#326 in AB values
signgroup Linear A

#327 MA/P (Malia, Palace) Yb 03: HMp no. ?, Chamaizi Vase


Cf. 049-041-006-025 (#316, #327). Notes to Sign 041, App. VI, and Notes to Signgroups, App. XVI suggest separating the signs thus: * or *.

#327 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
RO3-WA-NWA-KIU-NA-RU-KA-NA-TI (PK Za 11c), A-RI-NI-TA (HT 25a.3, ZA 8.2-3), DA-RU-NE-TE (HT 98b.2), I-*79-RI-NI-TA (PH 6.2)

#328 MA/V (Malia, Town) Ya 01: HM E 415. Offering table of blue limestone (Chapouthier, "Inscription hiéroglyphique gravée sur un bloc de calcaire," BCH 62, 1938, 104-109; context not datable)


CHIC: a piece carrying the extreme left of the first sign is now missing: sign 065 is therefore theoretically possible, but see Marinatos's drawing (JdI 52, 1937, cols. 229-230) and Chapouthier 1938 (in Chapouthier 1937, there is an initial mark).
Some sign combinations appear in other documents:

X X 034-002 20 (#058.c2)
X X 008-056-070 (#132)
X X 022-056-070-061 (*#071)
056-070 KU-RO ~ Linear A KU-RO ("balance", "total")
cf. 070-031-034 (#054.e) [also 070-031-019 (#056.aA)]. Linear A RU-SA (HT 96a.3) and Linear B Ru-SI (KN Ak 634L, X8214B, and L 588.01)
X X 034-056 6400 (#049.c1); Notes to Signgroups, App. XXII
X X 056-077 (#112.b, #113.b2, #200)
X X 029-077-049 (#295.b)
[049-038[ (E113.a)
             *011-038-029 (#072)

JGY normalizes, based on the above


#328 in AB values
1.]NA-TA-VIR2common ending -NA-TE, NA-TI; cf. VIR+KA ... NA-TI (HT 97a.1, 4), VIR ... TA-NA-TI (HT 7a.1, 4), VIR ... KU-PA3-NA-TU (HT 119a.1, 3)
2. KU-RO KU-RO ("balance," "total")
3. TE-SA-KI TU-SU (PK 1.6-7); TE-JA ("five"; HT Zd 156); I 051 = ? fraction (see notes to #089, and Notes to Sign 051)
4. RO-E-TA
5.KU-RU2KU-RO ("balance," "total")
6. RO3-JA-MA RU-JA (KN Wc 26 ), ]RE-JA-MA[ (TRA Zb 1 alternative)
cf. common endings -RA-JA (KI-KI-RA-JA, HT 85b.1), -RI-JA (e.g., KU-PA3-RI-JA & PA-SA-RI-JA: HT 24a.1), -RU-JA (I-RU-JA, HT 7a.2; )

Given the parallels, it is remotely possible that this inscription records

#329 MA/V (Malia, Town) Yb 01: HMp 11158, base of a Chamaizi Vase

X X 049-042

Mallia Document Sets, II: Palace 1, related
CHIC reads an initial X, but the mark, perhaps a potter's mark, is placed at a little distance from the signgroup.
Since 042 is an initial, the inscription should be read retrograde.
Phonetically, the signgroup recurs on Chamaizi Vase, #322, and probably #331.

JGY normalizes


#329 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
<A-RO3A-RI (PH 6.1, 3), A-RU (HT 9a.5-6, b.2-3; HT 49a.6)

#330 MA/V (Malia, Town) Yb 02: MASM 90-109/4.1, amphora handle

]•[ >< ]029-064-•[ ><

#330 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
MA-DA-TI (PK 1.8)
DU-DA-MA (HT 6b.4), I-DA-MA-TE (AR Zf 1 & 2), MI-DA-MA-RA2 (ARCH Zf 9)

MA/V (Malia, Town) Yb 03: MASM 93.0540.28, amphora handle (Schoep, Ilse. 1995. "A New Cretan Hieroglyphic Inscription from Malia (MA/V Yb 03)," Kadmos 34: 63-77)
] []042-028[]A-KU2[

Linear A: A-KI-RO (ARKH 4b.4)

MA/V (Malia, Town) Yb 04, pot from Building Π, Court 25 (Protopalatial) (AR 58, 2011-2012, 72 [no illustration])
*023-025-003TU-TE VIR3


CHIC #122. PH Hi 01 (HM 1), Tablet: SM I P.121, pp. 21, 148, 179: from the palace, but recognized only after being excavated, 1901: MonAnt 12, 1902, pp. 96-97, pl. VIII, fig. 2; 13, 1903, p. 26, fig. 11) (8.1 x 4.1 x 1.1 cm)
As on the tablet
r.1**    20    20    20    20038-047-047   *153 20Δ   *158 20Δ   *154 20Δ   *155 20Δ
r.2 25    25*       25*    25*153 25ΔΣ   *158 25ΔΣ      *154 25Σ   *155 25Σ   

CHIC normalizes
r.1** 20038-047-047*153 20Δ
20*158 20Δ
20*154 20Δ
20*155 20Δ
r.2 25*153 25ΔΣ
25*   *158 25ΔΣ   
25**154 25Σ
25   *155 25Σ

CHIC: Linear A according to Raison-Pope 1994, 265-6 (PH 32).
r.1.2: *158 recurs only on KN bar #065. The document presents two lists (r.1 & r.2) of the same commodities, ordered in the same order. The first list has a heading ** 038-047-047; the second list has none. The second list records amounts of 5-plus over those of the first list. One interpretation would be to see list 2 as a target and list 1 as amounts collected; on the model of #118, ** 038-047-047 could even be similar to KU-RO-RO (see #061). The Linear A parallels suggest a retrograde reading for this signgroup.

JGY normalizes
r.1** 20038-047-047*153 20ΔJA-QE-QEGRA 20 1/3
20*158 20ΔOLE 20 1/3
20*154 20ΔOLIV 20 1/3
20*155 20ΔFIC 20 1/3
r.2vacat 25*153 25ΔΣ GRA 25 1/3 Σ
25*   *158 25ΔΣ   OLE 25 1/3 Σ    
25**154 25ΣOLIV 25 Σ
25*155 25*155 25FIC 25

r.1: Linear A: JA-QE (HT 37.6 alternative), ]-JA-QE (KN Za 17); or, if retrograde, QA-QA-RU (HT 93a.4; HT 111a.3; HT 118.2-3; HT 122b.3-4); QA-QA-DA (PE 2.3-4)


#331 PRODROMOS Yb 01: drawing in SM I, Chamaizi Vase (according to Sabine Beckman [pers. com. email 6 Sep 2009): "Prodromos" is actually "Prodromos Botzano," as given by Evans. Beckman has determined that this is the area around a small church south and above the plateia of Kritsa, opposite the large modern church.

X X 042-091

#331 in AB values
signgroup Linear A

Beckman (pers. com. email 19 Sep 2009) suggests, probably rightly, 091 (hapax here) is a tripliate of 049, and she compares #329 from MA Ville (Quartier Theta [Malia beach]): X X 049-042; if so, then compare #322 and #329.


PYR Yb 01: two signs incised on a body sherd (Ferrara, Weingarten, Cadogan 2016, 88 fig. 7, 94-95, Inscription 6) identified by Olivier as Linear A: PYR Zb 5, AB 04-57 , ]TE-JA[.

PYR Yb 01 in AB values
signgroup Linear A
025-056 TE-KU

Though the sherd is broken on all sides, there seems to be ample space for further traces of signs, if such existed; the inscription therefore may be complete. Ferrara et al. note that the second sign, if Hieroglyphic 056, is missing its top "handle." If Linear A JA, however, the sign is complete.
Cf. Petras Hh 16d: 025-056-005. There are several instances of a T-K sequence in Linear A (cf. TE-KE on HT 85a.5, TE-KI on HT 13.3-4 and 122a.3, TI-TI-KU on HT 35.1 and ZA Ab 3.2), but no TE-KU.


SY Hf 01: Lame (MM IIB context; A. Lebessi, P. Muhly, J.-P. Olivier, "An Inscription in the Hieroglyphic Script from the Syme Sanctuary, Crete (SY Hf 01)," Kadmos 34.1 [1995] 63-77)
A-B]       |      ] *171   *308   |   *159   *308] *171   Koppa   |   *159   Koppa

The lame's inscription is somewhat similar to those using fractions found on a few seals (CHIC #206, #291, #292; and KN S = CMS II 3.23) reconstructed in Notes to Signgroups XV. From the discussion there, if might be possible to recognize in *159 the logogram for CYP.

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Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (jyounger@ku.edu)