inaugeral date: 4 December 2005; last update: 4 August 2022
Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (email@example.com)
The Phaistos Disc is unique for the Aegean Bronze Age (= it is one of a kind with no parallels). Remarkably similar, however, is the Etruscan Magliano Disk made of lead and known from the late 19th c. (Hnila 2009, 60, citing Milani 1893).
The Phaistos Disc is made of clay (D. 15.8-16.5, Th 1.6-2.1 cm), and like a large cookie in shape and color. On both sides there is a spiral band containing impressions made by metal stamps, each quite small and each giving the profile of what it depicts (head, bird, boat) with an occasional internal detail (e.g., an eye, an earring) much like a modern cookie-cutter.
The Disc was found on July 3, 1908, Friday evening. The excavator, Luigi Pernier, was not present. "According to Pernier's field notebook, the disk was not found during the regular excavation in Room 8 of Building XL/101, but it was rather 'identified' by Zakarias Iliakis, foreman of the workmen, during his evening inspection of the site" (Hnila 2009, 60-61).
Reportedly found along with the Disc was a Linear A tablet (PH 1), Kamares ware pottery (MM II), and later material.
The Disc's spiral band was first outlined with a stylus from the circumference to the middle; first tracing the outermost spiral as a circle, then stopping to shift direction and completing the rest of the spiral to the center, with the central loop being shaped with the inscription there in mind. Then the signs were stamped, again from the periphery in to the center (as overlaps indicate [Bradshaw 1977]: sign on sign [e.g., A XIV 3 over 2, XVII 4 over 3, XXIX 4 over 3; cf. A V 1 over 2 in an erasure], and sign on the upper spiral line [e.g., A XX 1, III 2, XIV 3, XX 3, XXVI 3, 4; B XII 2, XXII 4]). As each group of signs was stamped, a vertical line was drawn to the left to mark that sign-group off from the one to follow; here again, some signs that begin a sign-group overlap the vertical line separating it from the preceding sign-group (A XXI 1, XXIX 1; B XXVIII 2).
That the sign-groups are arranged in phrases may be indicated by small oblique strokes below final signs (e.g., A I, A III, etc.).
The Phaistos Disc carries 45 different signs. And a total text of 241 signs altogether.
A bronze ax from the Arkalochori cave carries an inscription of 15 signs in three columns; four of these signs are new and the rest may duplicate signs on the Disc. And a clay sealing from the Phaistos sealing deposit archive (CMS II 5.246, below) also duplicates one of the signs on the Disc (sign 21); the sealing was excavated in 1955.
The Phaistos Disc syllabary (if that is the nature of the script) should have some 75-100 signs, of which some 55-59 are now known.
Although the Disc is unique as a stamped inscription (often likened to a movable font inscription, like that produced by a printing press), there are more clay objects impressed with similar cookie-cutter stamps, including the Comb sign (no. 21) as a pot-mark (the Comb sign also appeared on a stamp seal that impressed a sealing from Phaistos, CMS II 5, no. 246, see below)):
As a spiral inscription the Disc has one Linear A parallel, KN Zf 13, the gold ring from Mavrospelio Tb IX.E1 (cf. the inked inscriptions in two conical cups, KN Zc 6 and 7): Linear A miscellaneous inscriptions.
With only 3 documents and only some 55-59 different signs, the entire signary is still unknown -- if a syllabary, as seems likely, there should be some 75-100 signs.
For a list of the PH Disc signs (including those on the Arkalokhori Ax and Phaistos sealing, compared with Hieroglyphic signs), click here.
On May 23, 2014, Gareth Owens gave a TedTalk at the Technical Education Institute (TEI) in Iraklion, in which he claims to have identified the phonetic values of 90% of the Phaistos signs, including two words and a phrase that are similar to the Linear A "Libation Formula." And on the basis of these identifications he claims both scripts write the same language and it is Indo-European. In July 2016, his website was removed. A copy of his TedTalk now appears on a YouTube site (hit play after all the advertisements play out [37 seconds]).
Readers shoud keep in mind, however, that Owens identifies Phaistos Disc signs as similar in shape to Linear A signs and then assigns them the Linear A phonetic values, which are based on Linear B phonetic values.
Phaistos Disc, side A
Phaistos Disc, side b
The Phaistos Disc syllabary (the names are conventional, Godart 1993/1995)
|01 walking man||02 plumed head||03 tatooed head||04 bound man||05 child|
|06 woman||07 helmet||08 glove||09 plow||10 arrow|
|11 bow||12 shield||13 club||14 yoke||15 ax|
|16 saw||17 lid||18 boomerang||19 plane||20 triton|
|21 comb||22 frond||23 column||24 hut||25 boat|
|26 horn||27 hide||28 hoof||29 cat||30 ram|
|31 bird||32 pigeon||33 tuna||34 fly||35 tree|
|36 vine||37 papyrus||38 rosette||39 lily||40 bull hindquarters|
|41 double flute||42 rasp||43 filter||44 cleaver||45 wave|
The Phaistos Disc inscription
|/||A I: 02-12-13-01-18/|
|, /||A II: 24-40-12, A III: 29-45-07/|
|, , , , , , , , /||A IV: 29-29-34, A V: 02-12-04-40-33, A VI: 27-45-07-12, A VII: 27-44-08, A VIII: 02-12-06-18-, A IX: 31-26-35, A X: 02-12-41-19-35, A XI: 01-41-40-07, A XII: 02-12-32-23-38/|
|, , /||A XIII: 39-11, A XIV: 02-27-25-10-23-18, A XV: 28-01/|
|/||A XVI: 02-12-31-26/|
|, , /||A XVII: 02-12-27-27-35-37-21, A XVIII: 33-23, A XIX: 02-12-31-26/|
|, /||A XX: 02-27-25-10-23-18, A XXI: 28-01/|
|/||A XXII: 02-12-31-26/|
|, , , , /||A XXIII: 02-12-27-14-32-18-27, A XXIV: 06-18-17-19, A XXV: 31-26-12, A XXVI: 02-12-13-01, A XXVII: 23-19-35/|
|, , , , , , /||A XXVIII: 10-03-38, A XXIX: 02-12-27-27-35-37-21, A XXX: 13-01, A XXXI: 10-03-38 B I: 02-12-22-40-07, B II: 27-45-07-35, B III: 02-37-23-05/|
|, , /||B IV: 22-25-27, B V: 33-24-20-12, B VI: 16-23-18-43/|
|, , , , , , , , , , , /||B VII: 13-01-39-33, B VIII: 15-07-13-01-18, B IX: 22-37-42-25, B X: 07-24-40-35, B XI: 02-26-36-40, B XII: 27-25-38-01, B XIII: 29-24-24-20-35, B XIV: 16-14-18, B XV: 29-33-01, B XVI: 06-35-32-39-33, B XVII: 02-09-27-01, B XVIII: 29-36-07-08/|
|, /||B XIX: 29-08-13, B XX: 29-45-07/|
|/||B XXI: 22-29-36-07-08/|
|, , /||B XXII: 27-34-23-25, B XXIII: 07-18-35, B XXIV: 07-45-07/|
|, /||B XXV: 07-23-18-24, B XXVI: 22-29-36-07-08/|
|, , , /||B XXVII: 09-30-39-18-07, B XXVIII: 02-06-35-23-07. B XXIX: 29-34-23-25, B XXX: 45-07/|
The Arkalokhori Ax is a large, bronze double ax found in one of the caves on Prophetis Elias near the village of Arkalokhori in central Crete.
After pillaging in the late 19th and early 20th century, and some excavation in the late 19th century, Spyridon Marinatos responded to more pillaging in 1935 with further excavation of the site and, among other finds, discovered a gold ax and silver ax inscribed in Linear A ("I-DA-MA-TE," AR Zf 1 & 2), and a bronze ax inscribed with some signs from the Phaistos Disc syllabary (Marinatos 1935: 250-259). Marinatos assumes a context date of MM III (-LM I), but there was little to no pottery. Most scholars assume a date either contemporary with Neopalatial axes of similar type or with the Phaistos Disc (late Protopalatial).
Since most of the sign groups on the Phaistos Disc are short (mostly 3 and 4 signs long), it is tempting to regard the signs in the third column as one sign group and columns one and two containing two sign groups each, separated by a divider (cf. the dotted vertical line that starts both sides of the Disc).
Arkalokhori Axe, photo by Chronis Papanikolopoulos (in Flouda 2015, fig. 1a-b)
Arkalokhori Axe, drawing of inscription (in Flouda 2015, fig. 5, drawing by Giuliano Merlatti)
The Arkalokhori Ax inscription
In 3 columns
· 01-02-03 |
|Phaistos signs: 02-19-Face |
· 01-07 |
|Phaistos signs: 02-Curved
|·||Col. 3: · 09-10-02||Phaistos signs: 10-Double Branch-19|
In signgroups (assuming sign begins a signgroup and each column contains two signgroups)
|Signgroup 1: 01-02-03 (04)||Phaistos signs: 02-19-Face-23?|
|Signgroup 2: 05-06||Phaistos signs: 39?-22?|
|Signgroup 3: 01-07 (04b)||Phaistos signs: 02-Curved Branch-23?|
|Signgroup 4: 01-03-08||Phaistos signs: 02-Face-39?|
|Signgroup 5: 09-10-02||Phaistos signs: 10-Double Branch-19|
Another document is an impressed sealing from Phaistos (MM II late), CMS II 5, no. 246, whose seal carried Phaistos sign 21; the sealing was excavated in 1955.
Bibliography of selected archaeological works on the Phaistos Disc
Mackay. 1964. "On the Type-fount of the Phaistos Disk," Statistical Methods in Linguistics 4, pp. 15-25.
Marinatos, S. 1935. Marinatos, S. 1935. "Ausgrabungen und Funde auf Kreta 1934-1935," Archäologischer Anzeiger 1935, 244-259.
Milani, L. A. 1893. "Il piombo scritto di Magliano." Monumenti antichi 2: 38-67.
Neumann, Günter. 1968. "Zum Forshungsstand beim "Diskos von Phaestos," Kadmos 7, pp. 27-44.
Oliver, Jean-Pierre. 1973. "Encore les corrections du disque de Phaistos," Antichità Cretesi 1, pp. 182-185 (Cantania).
Owens, Gareth. 2007. Labyrinth: Scripts and Languages of Minoan and Mycenaean Crete. Heraklion, Centre for Cretan Literature with the support of Heraklion Prefecture (ISBN 978-960-86847-5-1), esp. pp. 185-203, “The Phaistos Disk: The Enigma of the Minoan Script."
Pernier, Luigi. 1908. "Il disco di Phaestos con caratteri pittografici," Ausonia 3, pp. 255-302.
Younger, John G. 2007. "The Aegean Bard: Evidence for Sound and Song." In: EPOS. Reconsidering Greek Epic and Aegean Bronze Age Archaeology (Aegaeum 28), edited by S. Morris and R. Laffineur, 1-7, esp. 7. Liège & Austin.
Comments, corrections, questions: John Younger (firstname.lastname@example.org)