Hellenistic to Modern

last update: 9 May 2000


Establishment of the Helenistic kingdoms: Egypt under Ptolemy, Syria under Seleukos, Greece somewhat freer under Antigonos and his various successors.

Athens is now the Mediterranean's university town with Plato's Academy, Aristotle's Lyceum, Zeno among the Stoas and the Peripatics everywhere.



196various disputes amongst the small city-states of southern Greece cause Rome to intervene and, at Olympia, Flamininus declares Greece "free" as the Roman province of Achaia
ca. 150the Attalids of Pergamon beautify Athens
146Rome destroys Corinth and establishes the province of Greece (former Achaia plus Macedonia
88Athens allies with Mithridates of Pontos and is sacked by Sulla
27Augustus (27 BC - AD 14)


14Tiberius (14-37)
37Caligula (37-41)
41Claudius (41-54)
43England made a Roman province
54Nero (54-58)
St Paul preaches in Athens
Nero attempts a canal at Corinth
68-69Galba, Otho, Vitellius -- Emperors
69Vespasian (69-79)
70Destruction of Jerusalem
79Titus (79-81)
Eruption of Vesuvius (August 14)
81Domitian (81-96)
96Nerva (96-98)
98Trajan (98-117)
117Hadrian (117-138)
125Roman Forum established in Athens
138Antoninus Pius (138-161)
ca. 160Pausanias writes his Description of Greece
161Marcus Aurelius (161-180)
176Stoic University established at Athens
180Commodus (180-192)
193Septimius Severus (192-211)
211Caracalla (211-217)
edict extends citizenship to all people in the Empire
267Heruleans, a Gothic tribe, sack Athens
284Diocletian (284-305) divides the empire in half
Diocletian rules in the east
Maximian rules in the west
305Diocletian and Maximian abdicate
Galerius rules in the East (305-311)
Constantius rules in the west (305-313)
313Constantine (313-337) reunites the empire


313Constantine (313-337)
Constantine converts to Christianity
edict: no more religious persectutions of the Christians
330at Byzantion, Constantinople founded and becomes the Roman capitol
379Theodosius (379-395)
429edict: all temples must be converted to churches or be razed; the Parthenon is dedicated first to Ayia sophia (Holy Wisdom) and then to the Mother of God (Theotokos)
527Justinian (527-565)
532Ayia Sophia built in Constantinople
550silk work eggs smuggled into Greece; Thebes becomes the leading manufacturer of silk
622Hegira of Mohammed (dies 632)
633expansion of Islam: Iraq (633), Babylonia (637), syria (638), Egypt (639), Persia (644), N. Africa (705), Spain (713), southern France (732)
673Moslem attacks on Constantinople repelled
717iconoclasm separates East from West churches
768Charlemagne repels Moslems from France
787iconoclasm rejected
810Arabs conquer Crete (810-961)
1096Crusade I captures Jerusalem (1099) and four Latin states are created: Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, Jerusalem
1189Richard LionHeart leads Crusade III against Saldin
1191Christians allowed acess to Jerusalem
1204Crusade IV caputres Constantinople and establishes the Frankish Empire (1204-1261): Duchy of Athens ruled from Thebes (1204-1460), Principality of Achaia (1204-1432) ruled from Andravidha near Olympia, and the duchy of the Archipelago (1204-1566)
Venetians occupy Crete (1204-1669)
1206Byzantine empire moves to Nicaea
1208Parthenon dedicated to the Virgin Mary
1220Geoffrey II Villehardouin of Achaia
1261Michael Palaeologos recaptures Constantinople
1262Michael Palaeologos recaptures Mistra and makes it the Byzantine capitol
1289Osman I, first Turkish sultan (1289-1326)
1309Knights of St John occupy Rhodes
1311Catalans take the Duchy of Athens
1348Black Plague originates in Copnstantinople
1361Adrianople becomes the Turkish capitol
1380Albanians invited to occupy the uninhabited areas of Greece
1388Florentines take the duchy of Athens
1430Byzantines oust the Franks from Andravidha
1453Mohammed captures Constantinople (May 29)
1456Turks take the Duchy of Athens
1458a mosque is inserted into the Parthenon
1461Turks take the Peloponnese
1522Suleiman I, the Magnificent, captures Rhodes
1529Suleiman I repelled from Vienna
1566Turks conquer the Duchy of the Archipelago
1571Battle of Lepanto (Naupaktos, Oct 7): the Holy League defeats the Turks but do nothing
1587Sir Walter Raleigh lands in North Carolina
1626Venetians under Morosini capture Crete
1669Moslems capture Crete
1687Morosini recaptures the Peloponnese
Sept 23, lays siege to the Acropolis of Athens and blows up the Parthenon on Sept 26
1690Venetians reoccupy souther Greece (until 1715)
1714Palamidi (Nafplion) is built
1715Turks recatpure the Peloponnese
1797Ionian islands pass from Venetians to the French
1798Napoleon takes Egypt
Constantine Rhigas (1760-98), nationalist poet, executed
Alexander Korais (1748-1833) develops a national language (katharevousa)
1799Lord Elgin becomes British ambassador to Istanbul
1801Lord Elgin begins removing sculpture from the Acropolis
Memhet Ali in Egypt & Ali Pasha at Ioannina "seccede" from Turkey
1814Philiki Hetairia (Society of Friends) is created to obtain foreign aid to abet a revolution
1821April, revolt against Turkey raised at Kalavryta
1822Jan.: Constitution of Epidauros elects Mavrokordato president
massacre of the Turks at Dervenaki (south of Corinth) by Kolokotronis
1824Byron dies at Missolonghi
1826England and Russia agree to support an independent Greece
1827May: democratic Constitution of Troizene
July 6: Treaty of London: France, England, and Russia agree to force Turkey to surrender Greece
Oct 20: French, English, & Russian fleets "by accident" annihilate the Turkist fleet in the bay of Navarino, Pylos
1829Sept 14: peace treaty signed at Adrianople
Capodistrias president of the Greek Republic and establishes the first capitol at Nafplion


1831Oct: Capodistrias assassinated
1832May: Prince Otho of Bavaria (wife: Amalia) becomes king of Greece
1833Mar: Athens becomes the capitol
1843Sept: Otho forced to be a constitutional monarch
Mavrokordatos becomes the first Prime Minister
1862Oct.: antimonarchist sentiment forces Otho & Amaia to retire to Bamberg
1863July: France, England, and Russia force Greece to accept Prince William of Denmark who becomes George I (1863-1913)
1854-1881expansion of Greece (Ionian islands, Epiros)
1893Corinth canal opened
1896Crete revolts form Turkey
Prince George made High Commissioner of Crete (a Protectorate of England, France, and Russia)
Eleutherios Venizelos becomes Crete's Prime Minister
1909Tukey becomes a republic
1910Venezelos becomes Prime Minister of Greece
1912Greece declares war on Turkey
Nov.: Crown Prince Constantine enters Thessaloniki
1913Mar 18: King George assassinated in Thessaloniki; Constantine I becomes king
Aug.: Crete united with Greece, along with west Thrace, Chios, Lesbos, and the northern islands
1914June 28: assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, starts World War I
1915Constantine declares a "benevolent neutrality" towards the Allies
Allies take Thessaloniki
1916Oct: Venizelos lands in thessaloniki and organizes a provisional government
1917Mar.-Nov.: the Russian Revolution
June 12: Allies force Constantine to abdicate, appointing his second son Alexander King
Venizelos declares war on the Central Powers
1918Sep: Greek forces join the Allies at Thessaloniki and defeat the Bulgarians
Oct 30: armistice on the eastern front
Nov. 11: armistice on the western front
1919Nov. 27: Treaty of Neuilly: Greece receives eastern Macedonia, west Thrace, and permission to occupy central Ionia (Smyrna)
1920Oct 25: King Alexander dies accidentally
Dec. 19: King Constantine returns from Switzerland
1921July: Greece marches into Ionia: the "Great Idea"
1922Aug. 26: Greek retreat to Smyrna, rout of Greek forces
Sept 26: Constantine abdicates in favor of Crown Prince George II
1923July 24: Treaty of Lausanne: an exchange of populations (2 million Greeks in Ionia migrate mostly to Athens
Oct 29: Turkey becomes a democratic republic, Ataturk first President
1925-7brief fascist government of Pangalos
1928Venizelos becomes Prime Minister again
1929Oct. 29: Depression begins
1933Jan. 30: Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
1935George II returns from England
1936Mar 18: Venizelos dies
Aug. 4: Metaxas gets George II's permission to dissolve Parliament and declare marital law
1939Sept 1: Germany's invasion of Poland starts World War II; Metaxas declares neutrality
1940Aug. 15: cruiser Helle sunk at Tenos by an Italian submarine
Oct. 28: Italy demands Greece's surrender; Metaxas replies "No!" (Ochi!); Italy invades and is repulsed
1941Jan. 30: Metaxas dies
Apr. 6: Germany invades Greece
May 30: invasion of Crete
Germans occupy Pireus, Salamis, Aigina, Crete, Thessaloniki, Chios, Lesbos, and Samos.
Italians occupy Athens
Bulgarians occupy western Macedonia
the rest of Greece is unoccupied and becomes the home of resistance fighters and Communists
1942University of Athens is closed
Nov.: King George II enrolls Greece in the UN, arranging for Swedish ships to bring food
1943Sept 9: Italy surrenders to the Allies
1944George Papandreou becomes new Prime Minister and forms a government-in-exile (in Egypt)
Oct.: Germans begin withdrawing north
Dec: Communist resistance fighters begin taking back Athens
1945May 7: Germany surrenders
Aug. 14: Japan surrenders
Sep 1: John Younger is born
Dec. Sophoulis becomes Prime Minister and announces amnesty
1946Mar 31: elections result in a Populist victory since the Communists abstain
Sept 28: George II returns
Mar 12: George II dies; succeeded by his brother Paul
Dec. 24: Communists proclaim an independent country in Thrace and kidnap thousands of Greek children
1948July: Corinth canal and National highway reopened.
1949Sep 6: Civil War against the communists declared over
1955Colonel Grivas in Cyprus begin terrorist actions against the native Turkish population
1956Feb. 9: women vote in Greece for the first time
Aug. 17: cease-fire in Cyprus
1959Republic of Cyprus declared
1964King Paul dies; Constantine II
1967Apr 21: Colonel George Papdopoulos overthrows the governemnt and heads a repressive, Christian military junta
Dec. 13: Constantine attempts a counter-coup and fails; flees to Rome
1968Nov. 3: George Papandreou dies
1973June 1: national referendum abolishes the monarchy
July: Papadopoulos appointed president of new parliamentary government
Aug.: University of Athens, Law School riots
Nov. 25: Athens Polytechnic University riots
Dec.: Papadopoulos forced to resign
1974July: Turkey takes over northern half of Cyprus
Nov. 17: elections in Greece: Karamanlis becomes Prime Minister
1989Nov.: Mitsotakis elected Prime Minister
1990May: Constantine Karamanlis (now 84) elected President

John Younger