Happenstance Learning Theory of Career Counseling
People bring genetic and socially inherited attributes to their environment.
These interact to produce the self views (sog's)
Which in turn influence one's work related behavior (actions)
Based on learning, not development, not dynamic process
4 factors influence career development
1) genetic endowment: race, sex, disabilities, talents
2) environmental conditions/events:
# and nature of job opportunities (Santa Claus, scuba diver)
# and nature of training opportunities
social policies (court decisions on testing, diploma)
labor laws, union rules, technological developments
natural disasters which change economy
3) learning experiences:
instrumental: act on environment, produce consequences
associative: cognitive connections, emotional component,
vicarious: a type of associative learning
4) task approach skills: standards, work habits, mental sets
Consequences of influences
a.1) self observation generalizations: self statements of evaluation of one's interests and values
Self Efficacy Expectations: Can I do this?
Outcome Expectations: What is likely to happen if I do this?
a.2) world view generalizations: standards of performance exist, and how do I measure up
b) Task approach skills: performance abilities & mental set
c) Actions: job application, choice of major
Facilitate learning of new things
Enable clients to create a satisfying life in a changing work environment
1) Help people EXPAND their options
2) Help people prepare for changing tasks
not just matching: world of work is now FLUID
3) Empower people to ACT, don't just diagnose
zeteophobia: the fear of career planning, based on the assumption that a
person can predict and control the future
4) Deal with ALL career concerns
not just matching and selection
Aptitudes: help clients learn new ones
Interests: encourage the development of new ones
Personality: view it as learned, encourage growth
A: Developmental and Preventative
career education / job clubs / occ info / simulations
B: Targeted and Remedial
behavioral (role playing, desensitization)
Indecision: not so important
Congruence: not so important
New Questions for outcomes
How much new learning have I helped stimulate?
How much have I helped client cope with changing work environment?
How much progress is client making in creating a satisfying life?
Career Outcome Expectations Scale
Career Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale
Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)
Lent, Brown, Hackett
Builds on Bandura's work in Social Learning
(Krumboltz VS SCCT)
1. self-efficacy beliefs
2. outcome expectations
3. goal representations
symbolic representations of desired future outcomes
INSTRUCTIONS: For each statement below, please read carefully and indicate how much confidence you have that you could accomplish each of these tasks by marking your answer according to the key, Mark your answer by filling in the correct circle on the answer sheet.
NO CONFIDENCE VERY LITTLE MODERATE MUCH COMPLETE
AT ALL CONFIDENCE CONFIDENCE CONFIDENCE CONFIDENCE
1 2 3 4 5
Example: How much confidence do you have that you could:
a. Summarize the skills you have developed in the jobs you have held?
If your response was "Moderate Confidence," you would fill out the number 3 on the answer sheet.
HOW MUCH CONFIDENCE DO YOU HAVE THAT YOU COULD:
1. Use the internet to find information about occupations that interest you.
2. Select one major from a list of potential majors you are considering.
3. Make a plan of your goals for the next five years.
4. Determine the steps to take if you are having academic trouble with an aspect of your chosen major.
5. Accurately assess your abilities.
6. Select one occupation from a list of potential occupations you are considering.
7. Determine the steps you need to take to successfully complete your chosen major.
8. Persistently work at your major or career goal even when you get frustrated.
9. Determine what your ideal job would be.
10. Find out the employment trends for an occupation over the next ten years.
11. Choose a career that will fit your preferred lifestyle.
12. Prepare a good resume.
13. Change majors if you did not like your first choice.
14. Decide what you value most in an occupation.
15. Find out about the average yearly earnings of people in an occupation.
16. Make a career decision and then not worry whether it was right or wrong.
17. Change occupations if you are not satisfied with the one you enter.
18. Figure out what you are and are not ready to sacrifice to achieve your career goals.
19. Talk with a person already employed in a field you are interested in.
20. Choose a major or career that will fit your interests.
21. Identify employers, firms, and institutions relevant to your career possibilities.
22. Define the type of lifestyle you would like to live.
23. Find information about graduate or professional schools.
24. Successfully manage the job interview process.
25. Identify some reasonable major or career alternatives if you are unable to get your first choice.
Copyright @2001, Nancy Betz & Karen Taylor.